Download Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture by Dennis J. Stanford, Bruce A. Bradley PDF

By Dennis J. Stanford, Bruce A. Bradley

Who have been the 1st people to inhabit North the United States? in response to the now normal tale, mammal hunters entered the continent a few 12,000 years in the past through a land bridge that spanned the Bering Sea. specific stone instruments belonging to the Clovis tradition tested the presence of those early New international humans. yet are the Clovis instruments Asian in foundation? Drawing from unique archaeological research, paleoclimatic examine, and genetic reviews, famous archaeologists Dennis J. Stanford and Bruce A. Bradley problem the outdated narrative and, within the technique, counter traditional--and usually subjective--approaches to archaeological checking out for historic relatedness. The authors practice rigorous scholarship to a speculation that locations the technological antecedents of Clovis in Europe and posits that the 1st american citizens crossed the Atlantic via boat and arrived in advance of formerly notion. delivering archaeological and oceanographic proof to aid this statement, the ebook dismantles the outdated paradigm whereas persuasively linking Clovis know-how with the tradition of the Solutrean those who occupied France and Spain greater than 20,000 years in the past.

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708 . Sac(i)l Ac Tun 'white cave' is identified by Barrera 1948 : 95 with Mayapan and translated as 'white carved stone'. I believe it to be Valladolid (Zaci), which is famous for its cave-cenote. 710. Or was this a lunar eclipse? 723 . Up to a point this is good Itza doctrine : the end of katun 13 Ahau con­ cludes the katun cycle. Here, however, we appear to confront Cozumel's justifica­ tion for taking the half cycle away from Emal. Katun 1 Ahau ends the half cycle of the seven odd-numbered lwtuns, and Emal served as the seat of at least three of these (11 Ahau, 5 Ahau, and 1 Ahau ) .

610. land rock' was apparently the nacom or military commander of the anti-Christian party. 1 616. Elom Tz'iitz' 'burned hoof' of Tz'itz'om Tun 'hoofed st d'h e', north of Izamal, was installed as lord on 1 Pop in ceremonies in the wild, replacing the pro­ Christian lord. His thirteenth office is his final and highest rank. T H E S IX T E E N T H C E N T U RY of Emal was ldlled by the priest of the east. It was a rain of fire over the Maya and the Chris­ tians alike. {624) Then the sl

When disagreement arose over the prophecies, it was up to the Spokesman to resolve it. Failing that, a con­ vocation of sages could be called. The authority of such a meeting appears to have exceeded that of the lord of the lwtun himself, and, though it was largely confined to the religious sphere, its ability to concert calendrical changes had a sweeping impact on political and economic affairs. A committee of sages W/Js also responsi­ ble for the ritual examination of public officials, normally under the aegis of the Spokesman, acting as Great Sun Priest ( ah noh kin ) .

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