By Martín Abadi, Luca Cardelli
Procedural languages are usually good understood and their formal foundations solid within the kinds of quite a few lambda-calculi. For object-oriented languages but the scenario isn't as straight forward. during this e-book the authors suggest and boost a distinct technique via constructing item calculi during which gadgets are taken care of as primitives. utilizing item calculi, the authors may be able to clarify either the semantics of items and their typing principles and show easy methods to strengthen the entire most vital ideas of object-oriented programming languages: self, dynamic dispatch, periods, inheritance, secure and personal tools, prototyping, subtyping, covariance and contravariance, and approach specialization. Many researchers and graduate scholars will locate this a huge improvement of the underpinnings of object-oriented programming.
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Additional info for A theory of Objects
4, we cannot usefully quantify over the subtypes of Max because of the failure of subtyping. A parametric definition such as: ObjectOperator P[M <: Max] is ... end; is not very useful; we can instantiate P to P[Max], but P[MinMax] is not well-formed. Still, any object that supports the MinMax protocol, in an intuitive sense, also supports the Max protocol. There seems to be an opportunity for some kind of subprotocol relation that may allow useful parameterization. In order to find this subprotocol relation, we introduce two type operators, MaxProtocol and MinMaxProtocol: ObjectOperator MaxProtocol(X] is var n: Integer; method max(other: X): X; end; ObjectOperator MinMaxProtocol(X] is var n: Integer; method max(other: X): X; method min(other: X): X; end; Generalizing from this example, we can always pass uniformly from a recursive type T to an operator T-Protocol by abstracting over the recursive occurrences of T.
There are several choices: whether subtyping is determined by type structure or by type names in declarations, and in the former case what parts of the structure of types matter. Structural subtyping (subtyping determined by type structure) has desirable properties, such as supporting type matching in distributed and persistent systems (15, 95) . A disadvantage is the possibility of accidental matching of unrelated types. However, one can avoid such accidents by imposing distinctions on top of structural subtyping (95).
In the implicit version of embedding, which we discuss next, we may designate a particular object as the donor of methods and fields to be copied into a new object. contents := n end; end; object reCellImp: ReCell extends cell is var backup: Integer := 0; override set(n: Integer) is self. set(n); end; method restoreO is self. 3. The extends declaration designates the donor object cell for reCellImp; we assume that the object that follows extends is statically known. As a consequence of this declaration, reCellImp is an object containing a copy of the attributes of cell, with independent state.