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Extra resources for A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism
The bilabial stop in each of these cognate sets is a reflex of PYu *p. Its occurrence immediately preceding primary stress is illustrated by cognate set 155 'father's father' : 54 PROTO-YUMAN PHONOLOGY H ñapó* W napó~y Ya ñipó Mo napáw Ma napáw Yu napáw Co rflipâ Τ napáw Ρ ñapó Κ páw. Following primary stress, the occurrence of *p is illustrated by set 168 'five' : Η Qeráp W θατάρ Ya Berápi Mo Oaráp Ma saráp Yu sœràp Co çarâp D sarâp Ca saráp Τ sarâp Ρ saráp. In positions preceding primary stress, PYu *t shows the following set of reflexes : (2) NYu t : Mo t : Ma t : Yu t : Co c : D t : Τ t : Ρ t : Κ t (1, 15, 18, 20, 29, 48, 49, 60, 89,99,150,169,187,203,218,221,245,273,284, 302, 306, 326, 333, 346, 353, 386, 391, 408, 411, 418, 448, 450, 452, 471, 492, 497).
It does occur medially in kalsáw 'clean', ' a l â y k 'ugly' ; finally in hapél 'dirty', ciskwil 'skin'. The palatalized lateral /P/ occurs initially in li>akwák 'bitter', lyahkwák 'to look for' ; medially in malvhó 'pipe', haletât 'spider' ; finally in hani'úlv 'ashes', ipály 'tongue'. The flap /r/, which "is a rare sound initially", according to Kroeber, occurs initially in my data only in ráp havík 'ten', ráp havík 'séti 'eleven', etc. In this case, ráp is evidently a contraction of Qaráp 'five', since havík is 'two'.
One pair of contrasts is i1èói 'eye', ί34όλ 'teeth'. Others are : >i iáól i 'willow', 1 3 1 3 ίΛάόΛ-3 'tooth' ; 'a1'áw3-2 'fire', Váw " 'grandchild' ; 3 a 3 v é 1 'mouse', 'a vé 'snake'. The length contrast illustrated above has a slight tone contrast as well: 'Ρρά 1 'arrow'. \-3 'man'. Tonal phenomena may be observed on the syntactic level as well as on the lexical, as for example in ciPmiPnvé'1 'chewing gum', cu2mu*nvék3 'he chews' ; pilpd'3 'person'. ρϊ3ράΛ 'people' ; maléúlv3 'it is sweet', maHúlv1-2· 'sugar'.