Download 50 Philosophy Ideas You Really Need to Know by Ben Dupré PDF

By Ben Dupré

Have you lain wide awake at evening fretting over how we will be able to verify of the truth of the exterior international? might be we're in reality disembodied brains, floating in vats on the whim of a few deranged puppet-master? if this is the case, you're not on my own -- and what's extra, you're in exalted corporation. For this query and different ones love it were the stuff of philosophical rumination from Plato to Popper.

In a sequence of obtainable and engagingly written essays, 50 Philosophy rules you really want to understand introduces and explains the issues of information, consciousness,
identity, ethics, trust, justice and aesthetics that experience engaged the eye of thinkers from the period of the traditional Greeks to the current day.

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This analysis sheds much light on the relation between laws and counterfactuals—but if counterfactuals are in the end just as mysterious as laws, and mysterious for very similar reasons, then such an analysis only reduces two mysteries to one, rather than removing the mystery. Lange does not claim otherwise: his stated goal is not to give an account of the metaphysical nature of laws of nature, but only to make clear the nature of the commitment one undertakes when one calls something a law of nature.

This worry is misplaced, though. 1 The connection between laws and measurements One thing that laws of nature do is make it possible to design ways of measuring things. Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation make it possible to measure the masses of the sun and planets by means of astronomical observations; the law of thermal expansion makes it possible to measure temperature using a mercury thermometer; the laws governing ⁴³ I explain why in Chapter 8. the law-governed world-picture 35 the propagation and reflection of light waves make it possible to use radar to measure the distance between one object and another; laws of electrodynamics make it possible to measure the strength of the electromagnetic field by observing the motions of small charged particles and the distribution of scattered iron filings; Ohm’s and Kirchoff’s laws make it possible to measure differences in electric potential; and so on.

Its nomic part includes the following propositions: (1): f =ma is (not just true but also) a law of nature. (2): same-direction, though true, is not a law of nature; it is an accidental regularity. It seems that there is an alternative to Newton’s theory, which is exactly like Newton’s theory except that it says that f =ma and same-direction are both laws of nature. There also seems to be an alternative according to which neither of these propositions are laws of nature, and both are accidental regularities.

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