Download 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed by Eric H. Cline PDF

By Eric H. Cline

In 1177 B.C., marauding teams identified in simple terms because the “Sea Peoples” invaded Egypt. The pharaoh’s military and military controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did many of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized international of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few many years. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economic system and cultures of the past due moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, all at once ceased to exist, besides writing platforms, know-how, and enormous structure. however the Sea Peoples by myself couldn't have triggered such common breakdown. How did it happen?

In this significant new account of the explanations of this “First darkish Ages,” Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of ways the top used to be led to by way of a number of interconnected mess ups, starting from invasion and insurrection to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of overseas alternate routes. Bringing to existence the colourful multicultural international of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the overdue Bronze Age and indicates that it was once their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a gloomy age that lasted centuries.

A compelling mixture of narrative and the newest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new gentle at the complicated ties that gave upward thrust to, and eventually destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the past due Bronze Age—and that set the level for the emergence of classical Greece.

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One text found at Hattusa, the capital city of the Hittites in Anatolia, contains a treatise written about 1350 BC by Kikkuli, a master Mitannian horse-­trainer, giving instructions on how to train horses over a period of 214 days. ”46 In his eighth campaign, during his Year 33 (ca. 1446 BC), Thutmose III, like his grandfather before him, launched both a land and a naval assault against the kingdom of Mitanni. 47 He defeated the Mitanni forces and ordered an inscribed stele to be placed north of Carchemish on the east bank of the Euphrates, to commemorate his victory.

And just as some former parts of the British Empire continue to play cricket and drink afternoon tea, long after the original empire vanished, so too some of the former parts of the Hittite Empire in northern Syria retained portions of Hittite culture, language, and religion—­so much so that we now refer to them as the Neo-­Hittites, who flourished during the early first millennium BC. By the time the Bible was written down, sometime between the ninth and the seventh centuries BC according to authorities, the original Hittites were long gone, but their successors—­the Neo-­Hittites—­were firmly established in the northern part of Canaan.

At the time that the Hyksos overran the country, Egypt was one of the established powers in the ancient Near East. The pyramids of Giza were already nearly a thousand years old by that point, having been built during the Fourth Dynasty, in the Old Kingdom period. ” And foreigners they were, for the Hyksos were Semites who migrated into Egypt from the region of Canaan, that is, modern-­day Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. 3 The Hyksos invasion of Egypt brought the Middle Kingdom period (ca. 2134–­1720 BC) to an end.

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